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International Journal of Innovations in Engineering, Science and Technology   Volume 5, Number 2, 2016

© 2016 McEvans Publications

www.ebusinesstech.org

 

HEAVY METAL PROFILE OF SOME SELECTED VEGETABLES CULTIVATED IN MUBI-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

Buba M.1*,Gaila N.M2,Isah L.3and Umar Y.D4

1, 2&3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi

4Department of Chemical Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi

Adamawa State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to determine the heavy metal profile of some selected vegetables cultivated in Mubi North local government area of Adamawa state. Three replicate samples ofeach of the selected vegetables were randomly collected from the study area and analyzed for 5 heavy metals namely cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Buck Scientific 210. Concentration of Pb in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.029 ± 0.002 mg/kg in moringa to 0.005 ± 0.001 mg/kg in cabbage, Cu showed highest concentration of 0.374 ± 0.007 mg/kg in rosella and the lowest concentration of 0.064 ± 0.003 mg/kg in moringa, Zn showed maximum concentration of 2.476 ± 0.001 mg/kg in sesame and minimum concentration of 0.697 ± 0.001 mg/kg in cabbage, highest level of Fe was detected in rosella 4.430 ± 0.002 mg/kg and the lowest was detected in moringa 0.700 ± 0.001 mg/kg. Comparing the results with the FAO/WHO maximum permitted level showed thatCu, Zn and Fe were higher than the safe limits in almost all the samples except in moringa (Cu 0.064 ± 0.003 mg/kg). Consumption of vegetables cultivated in the study area poses significant health hazard to the community. Therefore, regular monitoring of the levels of heavy metals from soil, refuse, effluents and all other food items is essential to prevent excessive build-up of heavy metals in the environment.

Key words:-Heavy metals, Vegetables, Bioaccumulation, Maximum Permitted Level,

INTRODUCTION

Nutrition experts encourage everyone to consume more vegetables as a rapid and least means of providing adequate vitamins, minerals and fibers. Regular consumption of vegetables in diet also provide many health benefits by reducing diseases, it can also convert fats and carbohydrates into energy (Mercola, 2014). Eating vegetables as integral part of diet is also one of the most important pathways for the human body to absorb dietary minerals necessary for healthy development (Elsevier, 2008). But however, consumption of vegetables contaminated with environmental pollutants such as toxic heavy metals poses a significant health risk to the public (Miroslay and Vladmir, 1998;Shagal et al., 2012).


Though, heavy metals are persistent and cannot be illuminated from the environment, their availability at high concentration is attributed to high background level and human activities (Jonathan and Maina, 2009). A number of farms used for vegetable cultivation are situated along river banks and around residential areas, these areas also serves as dump sites and channels for the discharge of house hold effluent into the water ways (Shagal et al., 2012).

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