KNOWLEDGE OF ORAL HEALTH EFFECTS OF ADULTS’ CIGARETTE-SMOKERS IN NIGERIA

1Oluchi A. Olofin, 2Angela N. Ohadoma, 3Chimkanma C. Nwachukwu

1,2Department of Dental Therapy, Federal College of Dental Technology & Therapy, Trans-Ekulu PMB 01473, Enugu, Nigeria, 3Department of Dental Technology

Federal College of Dental Technology & Therapy, Trans-Ekulu PMB 01473, Enugu, Nigeria

 

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ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to examine knowledge of oral health effects of cigarette smokers of adults in Nigeria. The study was conducted at Nkalaha Community in Ishielu, Ebonyi State, within July 24th and 2nd September 2018. Out of a total population of 7800 which consists of 3600 males and 4200 females, a sample size of 180 participants was used. The participants span between the ages of 18 and above. A purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Information on their demographics and knowledge on the oral effects of cigarette smoking were obtained through a self-structured questionnaire and oral interview. The people that smoked cigarette were 27(15%) persons (males only). Majority of the participants exhibited high level of awareness on the oral effects of cigarette smoking. The study was analysed using z-test which showed that their knowledge level is significantly high and the result was -1.79. It was recommended that oral health education programme should be organised for the community to educate them on the benefits of cigarette smoking cessation and maintenance of good oral health.

 

Keywords: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, health, disease, cancer

 

INTRODUCTION

The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), an unprecedented international treaty aimed at strengthening tobacco control globally, underlines the importance of education, communication, training, and public awareness on the health risks of smoking (WHO, 2003). A key aspect to educating the public on the deleterious effects of tobacco is the adoption of health warnings on cigarette packages (WHO, 2003; WHO, 2014). Cigarette smoking is the inhalation of smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes and cigars. Casual smoking involves the act of smoking only occasionally usually in social situations or to relieve stress. A smoking habit is a physical addiction to tobacco products (Leone, Landini & Leone 2010). Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of chemicals such as tars, nicotine, and carbon monoxide produced by burning tobacco and its additives. These components of cigarette among others constitute a great hazard to the body (Nordqvist, 2015). Over the decades, smoking continues to be the single greatest preventable cause of disease and death worldwide. Research has shown that it is the largest single risk factor for premature death in developed world. (Bashiru & Udo 2014).One-fifth of the deaths in the United States are attributed to smoking, and 28% of the smoking attributable deaths involve lung cancer, 37% involves vascular diseases, and 20% involve other respiratory diseases, therefore it represents a public health challenge, given the number of tobacco related diseases (Ryan, Trosclair & Gfroerer, 2012).

In Nigeria, there is currently a dearth of empirical data on tobacco attributable morbidity and mortality. However, the scarcity epidemiological statistics on smoking are inconsistent and conflicting (Raji, Sani, Ibrahim, Muhammad, Oladigbolu, & Kaoje, 2017). Nevertheless, certain surveys have reported the prevalence rate (current smokers) of 33.9% in North-east of Nigeria and 22.6% in a sample of 1,271 Nigerians. Other researchers have found relatively lower prevalence rate of 6.4% among adolescents in Calabar South-South Nigeria, 5.7% in Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria and a national survey of smoking prevalence rate ranging from 4.7% in Ibadan Nigeria to 16.7% in Kano (North- east Nigeria) among respondents between the 13 – 15 years of age (Abikoye, Kashimawo & Eze, 2013).Numerous cross-sectional case-control and cohort studies demonstrate a statistically significant association between smoking and compromised periodontal health. Cigarette smoking is recognized as most risk factor for oral cancer. The effects of smoking on oral tissues include reduced taste perception, staining of teeth, palatal keratosis, melanosis, oral candidiasis, halitosis and dental caries. It has an adverse effect on almost forms of periodontal therapy and increase severity of periodontal diseases (Bashiru & Udo, 2014).

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