INTRODUCTION 

Human resource is one of the most important elements for organizations to survive and develop. Organizations bear a great deal of costs in order to develop quality human resources.  This is because peak performance is pertinent to all organizations, and can only be achieved with a committed work force (Dessler, 2011).  Organizations therefore strive to raise an army of employees who are genuinely committed to actualizing the goals and objectives of the organization.  This however seem to have been a difficult task for most organization especially Nigerian banks, because they may have been employing the wrong methods in their bid to raise a committed workforce. Commitment is a person’s belief in a cause and pursuing that course willingly, intentionally, voluntarily, actively, passionately and relentlessly. Porter et al (1974) defined commitment as “an attachment to the organisation, characterised by an intention to remain in it; identification with the values and goals of the organisation; and a willingness to exert extra effort on its behalf”.  Genuine individual commitment to a cause cannot be forced or imposed, it is volitional. Meyer, Becker, and van Dick (2006) see commitment as “a force that binds an individual to a target (social or non-social) and to a course of action of relevance to that target”. They also explained that commitment consists of three mindsets that are affective; normative; and continuance commitments. Their submissions is in agreement with the model developed by Meyer and Allen (1991), which the researcher has adopted for this study.  Meyer and Allen’s model is the most researched model of commitment.  They identified three types of organizational commitment, which are: affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment.  Affective Commitment which is criterion variable in this study, is concerned with the individual’s emotional attachment and identification with the organization.  (Allen and Meyer, 1990).  It is the affection an employee feels or a strong personal attachment an employee feels for his job and organization.  According to Allen & Meyer (1990), it is “the employees’ emotional attachment and identification with and involvement in the organization.  “Affective commitment is seen by (Meyer and Allen 1991, 1997, Mowday, Porter and Steers 1982; Meyer & Herscorvitch 2001) as a force that bonds an individual to a course of action that is of relevance to a particular target.  (Meyer and Allen 1991, 1997, Mowday, Porter and Steers 1982).  Affectively committed employees are willing to go extra mile, just to ensure the success of their organization.  (Lee, Tem and Javalgi 2010; Bergman, 2006, Jha, 2011).  Employee with high affective commitment proceed with jobs in the organization because they are willing to do so, not because of pressure or compulsion (Almacik, Almacik, Akain and Erat, 2012, Jain Giga and Cooper, 2013, Patrick and Sonia 2012).  Employees who are affectively committed to the job and organization continue working for the organization because they want to stay closely linked with the organization.  (Lverson and Buttigieg, 1995; Meyer and Allen 1997, Beck and Wisdom, 2000).

 

Fully committed employees add to operations in several folds than less committed employees (Nongo and Ikyanyon, 2012). Although the commitment of workers to their organization is a grave concern of all employers (Anis, Kashif-ur-Rehman, Ijaz-Ur-Rehman, Khan, and Humayoun, 2011). It appears such committed employees are scarce in most organizations today, especially in the Nigerian banking sector. (Ahiazu and Asawo 2009; 2008; and Okpara 2004).  The Nigerian Banking Sector has very few provisions and policies that would encourage employee commitment. There are no part time employments, work time is not flexible except for a few field workers, study leaves are hardly granted, only women are given maternal leave, there are no known child care arrangements. The banking sector is one sector that is notorious for its long hour culture and high work-loads and daily targets for employees. (Epie, 2011). This has resulted in neglect of other areas of employees’ lives. There are lots of parents not spending enough time with their children and many kids been raised by maids. This long hour culture has also resulted in many couples separating or divorcing. This trend has a negative influence on the Individuals because Nigeria is family oriented (traditional society) hence the failure of a family system is termed as a failure on the individual’s part which tends to affect the success of persons. 

 

According to Ernest (2010), the consolidation and recapitalization exercise that has reshaped the structure of the banking system in Nigeria significantly has made banks contend with new demands to achieve greater efficiency.  This strive to meet up new challenges and remain relevant in this highly competitive sector has put so much pressure on the employees and management alike.  Greater challenges and demands are now placed on employees as a result of stiffer man power planning and control measures that are adapted by the fewer, well capitalized banks that emerged.  Employees are now required to put more efforts under stiffer regulations and guidance (Ajede 2011).  Rather than forcing employees’ compliance with organizational goals through stringent measures like - close supervision, standardization of processes and outcomes, a promise of job security which has failed in most cases, provision of modern office facilities to simplify the work process, and extensive and stringent rules, organizations should engage methods that would appeal to and satisfy the social, emotional and psychological needs of employees, which would facilitate voluntary employee involvement and identification with the value and goals of the organizations (Mittai and Mittai, 2005). One of such humane methods banks could employ are work-life balance techniques like provision of an enabling work environment that would allow for flexible work arrangements, leave arrangements, provision of some facilities like child care and recreational facilities, allowing employees to telework through the use of the internet on their mobile phones and systems etc.

 

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