INTRODUCTION
The relationship between sedentary farmers and herdsmen in both arid and semi-arid regions, have characteristically been a mixture of cooperation and conflict. Globally, farmers and pastoralists have historically competed over the use of resources and, in some cases, engaged in violent conflicts, while at the same time they have mutually cooperated in trade, land/resource use and have peacefully coexisted. Barth as cited in Bukari, (2017) noted that nomad-sedentary relations are embedded in the ecological, economic, social and political environment, as seen in everyday interactions. Despite the violent conflicts between the farmers and herders and the cattle raiding among various pastoralist groups across Africa, cross-cutting ties, from intermarriages, friendship and social ties, to land leases, economic and resource exchanges, have endured among farmer-herder groups in the East Africa (Kioko & Bollig, 2015). In the West African context, Hagberg (1998) similarly posits that migration, conflict, cooperation and patron-
client relationships are fundamental to farmer-herder relations. According to him, while herders are strangers to farmers, who are ethnically and socially different from them, at the same time, they are neighbours with whom local farmers engage in various social, economic and political relations.
In the case of West Africa, the majority of these herders are Fulani (also called Fulbe), nomadic and semi-sedentary pastoralists who engage mainly in herding cattle. The Fulani’s widespread regional distribution has added to their interaction with a large array of groups, including many subsistence farmers, community leaders, chiefs and landowners (Davidheiser & Luna, 2008). Thus, farmer-herder relations are basically situated within the milieu of cultural neighbourhood, characterised by cross-cutting ties of co-existence, and, at the same time, by ethnic/cultural differences and conflict. These relations are also shaped by social networks and social ties built over time. Farmer-herder relations have been changing over the past three decades,....................>.>.>.>

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